• Docker’s rise since its 2013 launch.
  • Popular for its automation and container deployment capabilities.
  • Offers portability, consistency, and efficiency.

Basic Architecture

  • Docker: Automates deployment inside software containers.
  • Containers: Isolated instances enabled by the OS kernel.
  • Multiple implementations; Docker is a prominent one.

Docker Images and Dockerfiles

  • Docker operates using ‘images’, which are like blueprints for containers.
  • Dockerfiles define how to build these images.


  • Example Dockerfile: Sets up OpenJDK, installs Python, and prepares the environment.
FROM openjdk:8u212-jdk-slim
RUN apt-get update \
  && apt-get install -y --no-install-recommends \
    Python3=3.5.3-1 \
    Python3-pip=9.0.1-2+deb9u1 \
  && rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*
COPY requirements.txt requirements.txt
RUN pip3 install --upgrade -r requirements.txt

Docker Registries and Hosts

  • Images stored in repositories, known as Docker registries.
  • Docker Hub is a popular public registry.
  • Docker host: A Linux machine running the Docker daemon.

Docker Architecture Overview

  • Illustration of Docker’s basic architecture.
  • Interaction between client, host, and registry.

Container Isolation in Docker

  • Key concepts:
    • cgroups
    • namespaces
    • image-layers
    • virtual network bridges
  • These tools collectively enable container isolation and functionality.

Control Groups (cgroups)

  • cgroups: Assign resources to process groups for isolation.
  • Example: Allocating specific CPU cores and RAM to different applications.
  • Essential for resource management and isolation.

cgroups Example

Namespaces in Docker

  • Namespaces: Isolate and virtualize system resources.
  • Types: PID, hostname, user IDs, network, IPC, filesystems.
  • PID namespaces example: Process isolation within containers.

PID Namespaces

  • Linux organizes processes in a tree hierarchy.
  • PID namespaces virtualize process IDs, creating isolation.
  • Example: Isolating processes in a container from the host system.
1 /sbin/init
+-- 196 /usr/sbin/syslogd -s
+-- 354 /usr/sbin/cron -s
+-- 391 login
    +-- 400 bash
        +-- 701 /usr/local/bin/pstree

Filesystem Namespaces

  • Virtualize parts of the filesystem tree for isolation.
  • Allows mapping a subtree as a root in a namespace.
  • Example: Different ‘virtual’ filesystem roots in Linux.

Filesystem Namespace Example

Other Types of Namespaces

  • User namespace: Maps users inside a container to outside users.
  • Network namespace: Isolates container’s network stack.
  • Each namespace type adds a layer of isolation in containers.

Stackable Image Layers and Copy-On-Write

  • Docker images are built in layers, each layer adding changes.
  • Example: An image layer adding Python on top of an Ubuntu base.
  • Efficiency through shared, immutable layers and copy-on-write.

Stackable Image Layers

Virtual Network Bridge

  • Isolates container’s network using a virtual bridge.
  • Connects virtual and physical network interfaces.
  • Allows network isolation and configuration flexibility.

Virtual Network Bridge

Connecting the Technical Dots

  • Docker simplifies container creation using Linux capabilities.
  • It automates the use of cgroups, namespaces, image layers, and network bridges.
  • Streamlines deployment without deep Linux expertise.

Opportunities and Challenges of Docker

  • Examining the benefits and potential issues with Docker adoption.
  • Balancing Docker’s capabilities with real-world deployment considerations.

Opportunities with Docker

  • Facilitates DevOps and CI/CD practices.
  • Predictable deployments: “It works on my machine” problem solved.
  • Integrates with major cloud and cluster managers.
  • Enables quick scaling and fast failure recovery.

Challenges in Docker Adoption

  • Security misconceptions: Containers don’t inherently secure applications.
  • Risk of deploying inadequate or insecure containerized solutions.
  • The “fat container” anti-pattern: Avoid heavy, complex containers.
  • Deep Linux knowledge may be required for specific issues.

Frequently Asked Questions About Docker

Containers vs Virtual Machines

  • Understanding the conceptual differences.
  • Containers: Lightweight, use the host OS kernel, efficient for isolated applications.
  • VMs: Heavier, require a hypervisor, suited for complete OS isolation.

VM vs Container

Do Containers Truly Isolate?

  • Containers provide isolation, but not absolute security.
  • Proper configuration is key.
  • Containers interact with the host and other containers, creating potential security gaps.

Impact of Containers on Production Stability

  • Containers can increase stability but don’t guarantee error-free applications.
  • Proper configuration and understanding of container interactions are crucial.
  • Containers facilitate quick recovery and scaling.


  • Docker: A powerful tool for efficient, isolated, and reproducible deployments.
  • Requires understanding of its ecosystem and underlying Linux features.
  • Not a one-size-fits-all solution; assess requirements before adoption.

“Putting broken software into a Docker container doesn’t make it any less broken.”